Marine Fidanyan writes on "Destruction of Jugha Necropolis with Armenian Khachqars (Cross-stones) in Azerbaijan" in the tenth issue of ARCA's Journal of Art Crime. From the abstract:
T￼he purpose of this paper is to present and discuss a specific case of the destruction of Armenian cultural heritage, namely the Jugha Necropolis, which used to be full of Armenian Khachqars (Cross-stones) in Nakhijevan, Azerbaijan. Khachqars are delicately carved stones decorated with cross/es and other unique ornaments. The Jugha Necropolis was far ￼from the area of the armed conflict initiated by Azerbaijan against Nagorno Karabakh as a result of self-determination movement. A ceasefire agreement was concluded between Armenia, Nagorno Karabakh and Azerbaijan in 1994.From the introduction:
Every nation or ethnic group has its own unique culture which is enshrined in monuments and passed from generation to generation. Each site and historical monument constitutes a separate page of the world book of existence of humankind and its development. Every single cultural object tells us history, encompasses respect towards ancestors, and reflects invisible energy and belief in its own strengths. To have a future we need to preserve our past. Cultural Heritage is a mirror of humanity and reflects a genetic wisdom of a particular nation, it drives us forward to explore and satisfy a natural, but endless curiosity as to who we are and where we are going. Notoriously, during wartime (as well as peacetime) the objects of Cultural Heritage are easily accessible targets, which can be destroyed and simply erased from the surface of our planet at once. War, undoubtedly, is a tragedy for all of humankind irrespective of nationality, gender, political as well as religious views and beliefs. War is often started for different reasons such as territory, treasure, political regime, ideological and/or religious beliefs, etc. By the destruction of Cultural Heritage, parties to a conflict are knowingly try to harm and destroy the cultural identity of a rival as much as possible and forever. Very often, the same behaviour occurs during “pretended peace-time”, or within the so-called period of ceasefire, even in places far from the armed conflict. Tangible objects of cultural heritage can become the most vulnerable targets of destruction and realization of an opposite party’s goals. In such cases there are no winners. As a result, the heritage of the world is affected and pages of common history are lost and erased. Armenia is an ancient country with a rich and unique Cultural Heritage, dating from the 4th BC. Armenia has inherited 33.000 historical and cultural monuments, which are under state protection and are included in the State Heritage Register. What of Armenia’s cultural heritage which, due to some past historical event, is now located within the borders of another State? This too can be subject to destruction related to armed conflict.
Marine Fidanyan is an Intellectual Property (IP) Expert. She received LL.M in IP and Competition Law from Munich IP Center (MIPLC) in Germany, LL.M from American University of Armenia (AUA). She studied at the ARCA Postgraduate Certificate Program on Art Crime and Cultural Heritage Protection. Marine is interested in Intellectual Property and Cultural Heritage protection issues as well as exploring intersection of these two disciplines. Majoring in Copyright and Related rights, Marine worked for the only Collective Management Organization in Armenia and has an experience of negotiating contracts with the users of copyrighted works, collecting remuneration, representing the organization in the court. While working for the European Union Advisory Group to the Government of Armenia, she was proving policy advice in the field of Intellectual Property. In addition, she was presenting IP related issues/topics to Judges, Prosecutors, Police and Customs officers during conferences, seminars and workshops, having lectures at the RA Police Academy and the RA Prosecutors’ School. Marine held a column at the monthly journal “The Pioneer”. She is the author of several publications on IP matters.
Design for this issue and all issues of The Journal of Art Crime is the work of Urška Charney. Here's a link to ARCA's website on The Journal of Art Crime (includes Table of Contents for previous issues).